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Robo-Advisor vs. DIY Investing in Singapore: Which is Right for Beginners?

In a landscape where traditional savings methods fall short of meeting ambitious financial goals due to rising inflation, young Singaporeans are seeking avenues for substantial growth. This quest has led many to explore the exciting realm of investing, where two powerful tools stand out: Robo-advisors and DIY investing with ETFs.

Robo-advisors offer a hands-off approach, promising to build a diversified portfolio for you effortlessly. On the flip side, DIY investing with ETFs empowers you to craft a custom strategy with the potential for higher returns. However, with each option boasting distinct advantages, navigating between them can feel like traversing a financial maze.

Fear not, for this comprehensive guide serves as your compass in this journey. We will delve into the intricacies of Robo-advisors and DIY investing, shedding light on their strengths, weaknesses, and how they align with your unique financial aspirations and risk tolerance. By the end of this exploration, you’ll possess the knowledge needed to make informed decisions and unlock the full potential of your investments in the dynamic Singaporean market.

Understanding Robo-Advisors in Singapore

Robo-advisors are automated investment platforms that use algorithms to create and manage investment portfolios based on your financial goals, risk tolerance, and time horizon. In Singapore, Robo-advisors have gained popularity for their convenience, accessibility, and ability to offer diversified investment solutions to a wide range of investors.

Robo-Advisors in Singapore

How Robo-Advisors Work

When you sign up with a Robo-advisor, you’ll typically go through a series of questions to assess your investment objectives and risk profile. Based on your responses, the Robo-advisor algorithm designs a personalized portfolio by selecting a mix of Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) that align with your goals. These ETFs cover various asset classes such as stocks, bonds, commodities, and real estate investment trusts (REITs), providing diversification within a single investment vehicle.

My Experience with Robo-Advisors

Having tried Syfe and Stashaway, I found their platforms easy to use with comprehensive investment guides and resources. However, as someone who enjoys actively managing investments and making informed decisions, I realized that Robo-advisors didn’t provide the level of control and transparency I desired.

One significant aspect I noticed was the cost factor. While Robo-advisors often start with low minimum investment amounts, the fees can grow significantly as your investment portfolio expands. These fees, typically ranging from 0.5% to 1% of your assets under management annually, can eat into your long-term returns, especially as your investment amount increases.

Additionally, I encountered limitations in terms of customization and flexibility. Robo-advisors offer pre-built portfolios based on risk profiles, but they may not align perfectly with individual preferences or specific investment strategies. For someone seeking more control over asset allocation, sector exposure, or thematic investments, the options within Robo-advisor platforms can be restrictive.

The lack of transparency over individual investment decisions and the automated rebalancing processes also contributed to my decision to explore other investment avenues.

Despite these challenges, Robo-advisors can be an excellent starting point for beginners or individuals seeking a hands-off approach to investing. They offer convenience, automated portfolio management, and access to diversified investment options that can suit many investors’ needs.

Remember, starting early allows you to leverage the power of compound interest, potentially outweighing Robo-advisor management fees in the long run. I explore this concept further in my blog post, The Hidden Cost of Waiting to Invest.

Advantages of Robo-Advisors

1. Automated Portfolio Management

One of the key advantages of Robo-advisors is their automated portfolio management feature. Once you’ve set up your investment preferences and deposited funds into your account, the Robo-advisor takes care of the rest. It continuously monitors your portfolio, rebalancing as necessary to maintain your target asset allocation. This automation eliminates the need for frequent manual adjustments and ensures your investments stay aligned with your goals.

2. Tax-Loss Harvesting

Many Robo-advisors offer tax-efficient investment strategies, including tax-loss harvesting. This technique involves selling investments that have experienced a loss to offset capital gains and reduce taxable income. Robo-advisors can automate tax-loss harvesting within your portfolio, potentially lowering your tax bill and improving after-tax returns over time.

3. Access to Professional Management

Robo-advisors provide access to professionally managed investment portfolios without the high fees typically associated with human financial advisors. These platforms leverage sophisticated algorithms and investment strategies developed by financial experts, giving investors access to institutional-grade investment management tailored to their individual needs.

1. Syfe

Syfe is a well-known robo-advisor in Singapore that stands out for its user-friendly interface and thematic investing options. They offer the following features:

  • Low Minimum Investment: Syfe allows investors to start with as little as SGD 500, making it accessible to a wide range of individuals.
  • Thematic Portfolios: Investors can choose from thematic portfolios such as Technology, Sustainability, and Global ARI (All-Weather, Resilient, and Intelligent).
  • Auto-rebalancing: The platform automatically rebalances portfolios to maintain the desired asset allocation.
  • Fees: While Syfe’s fees are competitive, they may be slightly higher for lower investment amounts.

2. Endowus

Endowus is another popular robo-advisor in Singapore known for its access to institutional-grade funds and comprehensive financial planning services. Here are some key features:

  • Access to Institutional Funds: Endowus provides access to funds typically reserved for high-net-worth individuals, allowing retail investors to benefit from professional-grade investment strategies.
  • Personalized Financial Advice: The platform offers personalized financial planning services, including retirement planning and tax optimization.
  • Fee Structure: Endowus charges a fee based on assets under management, which may be higher for smaller portfolios but decreases as your investment grows.

3. Stashaway

Stashaway is renowned for its customizable portfolios and goal-based investing approach. Here’s what sets Stashaway apart:

  • Customizable Portfolios: Investors can customize their portfolios based on risk tolerance, investment goals, and time horizon.
  • Goal-Based Investing: Stashaway offers goal-based investing options, allowing investors to align their portfolios with specific financial objectives such as retirement savings or purchasing a home.
  • Fee Structure: Stashaway’s fees are tiered based on the investment amount, with lower fees for larger portfolios. However, investors should be mindful of potential fee increases as their investments grow.

Meet Sarah, a busy marketing executive in her 30s. Sarah prioritizes convenience and time efficiency. She uses Syfe, a Robo-advisor that allows her to start with as little as SGD 500. This low barrier to entry, coupled with automated portfolio management, has helped Sarah grow her wealth while focusing on her career.

Understanding DIY Investing

DIY (Do-It-Yourself) investing involves taking a hands-on approach to managing your investment portfolio without relying on a financial advisor or robo-advisor. In Singapore, DIY investing with Exchange Traded Funds (ETFs) has gained popularity due to its flexibility, cost-effectiveness, and customization options.

DIY Investing

How DIY Investing Works

DIY investing, as the name suggests, is all about taking control of your investment decisions and managing your portfolio without relying on a financial advisor or robo-advisor. It’s as straightforward as it sounds – you do it yourself, from researching investment options to executing trades and monitoring your portfolio’s performance.

Here’s a step-by-step breakdown of how DIY investing typically works:

  1. Research and Analysis: As a DIY investor, your journey begins with thorough research and analysis. You’ll explore various investment options, such as stocks, bonds, ETFs, and mutual funds, to build a diversified portfolio that aligns with your financial goals and risk tolerance.
  2. Asset Allocation: Once you’ve identified suitable investment opportunities, you’ll determine the allocation of your funds across different asset classes. This could involve deciding how much of your portfolio should be in equities, fixed income securities, real estate, or other investment instruments.
  3. Selection of Investments: With a clear asset allocation strategy in mind, you’ll select specific investments to fill each asset class within your portfolio. This may include choosing individual stocks, bonds, or ETFs that match your investment criteria and long-term objectives.
  4. Execution of Trades: After finalizing your investment selections, you’ll execute trades through a brokerage platform or investment account. DIY investors have the freedom to buy and sell securities based on market conditions, investment goals, and personal preferences.
  5. Portfolio Monitoring: DIY investing requires active monitoring of your portfolio’s performance. You’ll track the market movements, evaluate the performance of your investments, and make adjustments as needed to maintain your desired asset allocation and risk-reward profile.
  6. Risk Management: DIY investors must also focus on risk management strategies, such as diversification, asset rebalancing, and setting stop-loss orders. These measures help mitigate risks and protect your portfolio during market fluctuations.

My DIY Investing Journey: ETFs, Individual Stocks, and Options

While Robo-advisors offer a great starting point, I found diving into DIY investing with ETFs gave me more control and the potential for better returns. My portfolio reflects a multi-pronged approach:

  • ETF Foundation: ETFs like VWRA (Vanguard FTSE All-World UCITS ETF) serve as my core holding. These provide broad market exposure, minimizing risk through diversification across various sectors and geographic regions.
  • Targeted Exposure: I also utilize ETFs like KWEB (Invesco KraneShares CSI China Internet ETF) and QQQ (Invesco QQQ Trust) to gain targeted exposure to specific sectors I believe in, like technology and Chinese internet companies. This allows me to potentially outperform the broader market in areas I’ve researched.
  • Individual Stock Selection: Beyond ETFs, I strategically invest in individual stocks. This allows me to capitalize on companies I believe have strong growth potential and a competitive edge. However, I understand this approach requires in-depth research and carries a higher degree of risk.
  • Options for Strategic Plays: Finally, I incorporate options trading into my strategy. This allows me to potentially buy stocks at a discount (through calls) or generate income on existing holdings (through covered calls). However, options trading involves a significant level of risk and requires a strong understanding of options mechanics and market volatility.

It’s important to remember that this is simply my experience, and it may not be suitable for everyone. DIY investing requires a significant time commitment for research, monitoring, and portfolio management. However, for those willing to put in the effort, it can be a rewarding way to achieve your financial goals.

Advantages of DIY Investing with ETFs

1. Cost-Effective Diversification

ETFs offer instant diversification by holding a basket of securities within a single fund. This diversification helps reduce risk by spreading your investment across multiple assets, such as stocks, bonds, or commodities. Compared to actively managed funds, ETFs typically have lower management fees and expense ratios, making them cost-effective investment tools.

2. Flexibility and Customization

DIY investing allows you to tailor your investment strategy to align with your financial objectives and risk preferences. You can choose from a wide range of ETFs covering various markets, sectors, regions, and asset classes. This flexibility enables you to build a diversified portfolio that reflects your investment thesis and market outlook.

3. Transparency and Liquidity

ETFs are traded on stock exchanges, providing transparency and real-time pricing information. Additionally, ETFs offer liquidity, allowing investors to buy and sell shares throughout the trading day at market prices. This liquidity ensures that investors can easily enter or exit positions without facing significant price fluctuations.

1. STI ETF (Straits Times Index ETF)

The STI ETF tracks the performance of the Straits Times Index, which comprises 30 leading companies listed on the Singapore Exchange (SGX). Investing in the STI ETF provides exposure to the Singapore market’s growth potential and diversification across key sectors such as finance, real estate, and technology.

2. ABF Singapore Bond ETF

The ABF Singapore Bond ETF invests in a diversified portfolio of high-quality Singapore government and quasi-government bonds. This ETF offers stable income potential through regular coupon payments and exposure to Singapore’s fixed-income market.

3. Vanguard Total Stock Market ETF

The Vanguard Total Stock Market ETF provides broad exposure to the entire US stock market by tracking the performance of the CRSP US Total Market Index. This ETF includes thousands of stocks across various sectors and market capitalizations, offering unparalleled diversification for global equity investors.

For those interested in a specific globally diversified ETF, like the VWRA ETF, I have a detailed guide explaining its features and benefits in the Singapore context.

Robo-Advisors vs DIY Investing with ETFs: Choosing Your Investment Approach

Understanding the Key Differences

Both Robo-advisors and DIY investing with ETFs offer distinct advantages and cater to different investor preferences. Understanding the differences between these approaches can help you make an informed decision that aligns with your financial goals, risk tolerance, and investment style.

Control and Management

  • Robo-Advisors: Robo-advisors operate on an automated, hands-off approach where algorithms manage your portfolio based on your specified goals and risk tolerance. Investors have limited control over individual investment selections and portfolio rebalancing.
  • DIY Investing with ETFs: DIY investors have full control over their investment decisions, including selecting specific ETFs, asset allocations, and portfolio management strategies. This hands-on approach requires active monitoring and periodic rebalancing by the investor.

Fees and Costs

  • Robo-Advisors: Robo-advisors typically charge annual management fees based on a percentage of your assets under management (AUM), ranging from 0.5% to 1% or more. While these fees may be lower than traditional financial advisors, they can impact long-term returns, especially for larger portfolios.
  • DIY Investing with ETFs: DIY investors incur brokerage commissions or trading fees when buying or selling ETFs, along with expense ratios associated with holding ETFs. Over time, DIY investing can be cost-effective, especially for investors with larger portfolios who actively manage their investments and minimize trading costs.

Learning Opportunities

  • Robo-Advisors: Robo-advisors offer a convenient “set-and-forget” approach, making investing accessible to beginners or busy individuals who lack investment expertise or time. However, this may limit the investor’s learning opportunities and understanding of investment principles.
  • DIY Investing with ETFs: DIY investing provides valuable learning opportunities as investors research and analyze ETFs, asset classes, market trends, and portfolio strategies. Investors gain hands-on experience in managing investments, which can lead to a deeper understanding of financial markets and investment principles.

Hypothetical Portfolios and Returns

Let’s explore hypothetical portfolios for different risk profiles using both Robo-advisor and DIY investing approaches:

Robo-Advisor Portfolio (Moderate Risk)

  • 60% Global Equity ETFs (Developed Markets)
  • 30% Bond ETFs
  • 10% Commodity/Real Estate ETFs
  • Expected Returns: This conservative portfolio could yield average annual returns of 5-7%.

DIY Portfolio (Moderate Risk)

  • 50% Vanguard Total Stock Market ETF (Global Exposure)
  • 30% ABF Singapore Bond ETF (Stable Income)
  • 20% Lion-Phillip S-REIT ETF (Singapore Real Estate)
  • Expected Returns: This portfolio offers higher growth potential (7-9% annual returns) due to its global focus and inclusion of real estate, but carries slightly higher risk.

Tax Implications and Regulatory Considerations

Tax Implications

When investing in Singapore, it’s crucial to understand the tax implications associated with both Robo-advisors and DIY investing with ETFs.


Robo-advisors typically manage your investments in a tax-efficient manner, aiming to minimize tax liabilities through strategies like tax-loss harvesting. Capital gains tax applies to profits from selling ETFs, but the first S$1,000 in gains are exempt annually for individual investors.

DIY Investing with ETFs:

Similarly, DIY investors need to be aware of capital gains tax on profits from selling ETFs held for more than 6 months. However, DIY strategies may offer more flexibility in tax planning, such as timing capital gains realization.

Regulatory Compliance

Both Robo-advisors and DIY investing platforms in Singapore operate under strict regulatory frameworks to ensure investor protection and market integrity.


Robo-advisors are regulated by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) and must adhere to guidelines regarding investor suitability, risk disclosures, and operational transparency. MAS regulations aim to safeguard investors’ interests and maintain market stability.

DIY Investing with ETFs:

DIY investing platforms, including brokerage firms and online trading platforms, also fall under MAS regulation. Investors must conduct due diligence when choosing a platform, ensuring it complies with regulatory standards and offers robust investor protections.

Making Informed Decisions

Understanding tax implications and regulatory considerations is essential for making informed investment decisions. Consultation with financial advisors or tax professionals can provide valuable insights into optimizing tax efficiency and navigating regulatory requirements.

Making Your Investment Decision

Assessing Your Investment Style

Before choosing between Robo-advisors and DIY investing with ETFs, it’s essential to assess your investment style, risk tolerance, and financial goals.

Risk Tolerance:

  • Are you comfortable with market fluctuations and potential short-term losses?
  • How do you react to market volatility and changes in asset values?
  • Assess your risk tolerance using online tools or consultations with financial professionals.

Investment Goals:

  • What are your short-term and long-term financial objectives?
  • Are you saving for retirement, a major purchase, or building wealth over time?
  • Define clear investment goals to guide your decision-making process.

Choosing Your Investment Approach

Once you’ve evaluated your investment style and goals, it’s time to choose the approach that best aligns with your preferences:

Conservative Investor:

  • Prefers stability and capital preservation over high-risk investments.
  • May opt for a Robo-advisor with a focus on bond ETFs for steady income and lower volatility.
  • Example: Syfe’s Fixed Income Portfolio or Endowus’ Cash Smart Core.

Moderate Investor:

  • Seeks a balanced approach with moderate risk and potential for growth.
  • Could consider a Robo-advisor offering a mix of global equity and bond ETFs or DIY investing with diversified ETFs.
  • Example: Stashaway’s Balanced Portfolio or a DIY portfolio with a blend of equity and fixed-income ETFs.

Aggressive Investor:

  • Comfortable with higher risk and volatility for the potential of higher returns.
  • May prefer DIY investing with growth-oriented ETFs, sector-specific ETFs, or a combination of global equities.
  • Example: Lion-Phillip Global Tech ETF or a DIY portfolio with a focus on emerging markets and technology sectors.

Implementation and Monitoring

After selecting your preferred investment approach, take the following steps to implement and monitor your investment strategy:

  • Research and Select: Research Robo-advisors or DIY platforms, compare fees, features, and investment options. Choose the platform that best fits your criteria.
  • Allocate Funds: Allocate your investment funds based on your chosen asset allocation and risk profile. Diversify your portfolio to minimize risk.
  • Monitor and Rebalance: Regularly monitor your portfolio’s performance and market conditions. Rebalance your portfolio periodically to maintain your target asset allocation.
  • Stay Informed: Stay informed about market trends, economic developments, and regulatory changes that may impact your investments. Continue learning and adjusting your strategy as needed.


Throughout this blog post, we explored the advantages and disadvantages of Robo-advisors and DIY investing with ETFs. While Robo-advisors offer automation and convenience, they might come with higher fees and less control. On the other hand, DIY investing allows for potentially better returns, lower costs, and more control over your portfolio, but requires more research and active management.

In my experience, having experimented with both approaches, I’ve found DIY investing to be a better fit for my goals. It’s allowed me to achieve (mention your specific goals, e.g., higher returns, focus on specific sectors). However, I understand this approach might not be for everyone.

The key takeaway is to carefully consider your investment style, risk tolerance, and financial goals before deciding. By evaluating these factors, you can choose the approach that best aligns with your needs. Remember, regardless of the method you choose, stay disciplined, monitor your investments regularly, and seek professional advice when needed.

While investing is a powerful tool, it’s not the only option for retirement savings. Explore various options, including CPF top-ups to grow your retirement savings.

Eugene Chai

Eugene Chai is a seasoned financial expert with over 4 years of experience. His work has graced the pages of prominent Singapore Investment sites. He has also been featured on Channel News Asia - Money Talks. With a passion for simplifying complex financial concepts, he empowers individuals to make informed decisions about their money. Whether it's investment strategies, personal finance, or market trends, Eugene's insights are a beacon of clarity in the world of finance.

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